An article published by NPR comments on the nationwide movement to expand the role of nurse practitioners in light of the growing deficit of primary care physicians. According to the article:
Nursing leaders say large numbers of [nurse practitioners] …will be needed to fill gaps in primary care left by an increasing shortage of doctors, a problem that would intensify if Congress extends health insurance to millions more Americans. Advocates say nurse practitioners have the extra education and training needed to perform a variety of services, including physical exams, diagnosis and treatment of common ailments and prescribing drugs.
A study published by the Center for Workforce Studies projects that, by 2025, there will be a nationwide shortage of about 124,000 physicians. Researchers note:
Under any set of plausible assumptions, the United States is likely to face a growing shortage of physicians. Due to population growth, aging and other factors, demand will outpace supply through at least 2025. Simply educating and training more physicians will not be enough to address these shortages. Complex changes such as improving efficiency, reconfiguring the way some services are delivered and making better use of our physicians will also be needed.
Based on this rationale, a number nursing organizations, state level legislators, regulatory bodies, and various other national organizations and policy thinktanks advocate for an expanded role, particularly in the field of primary care, for nurse practitioners. According to the article, a number of states have already implemented or are presently considering legislation to expand the role of nurse practitioners. For example, a Colorado bill would enable nurse practitioners to issue orders in the same way as a physician. Practically speaking, this would mean that a nurse practitioner, in addition to being able to order medications, would also be able to issue orders directing the treatment of the patient (e.g., orders to admit the patient, CT/MRI orders, consultation orders, etc.)
While these proposed reforms may be practical and serve a utilitarian purpose, one can’t help but wonder if the quality of health care rendered to millions of Americans is going to be compromised as a consequence. The easy answer is not always the right answer. It may be true that there are more nurse practitioners in the U.S. than there are physicians (there are about 125,000 more nurse practitioners). If allowed, nurse practitioners could certainly fill the void. But, the critical inquiry remains: are nurse practitioners sufficiently qualified to serve as substitutes for physicians? For example,
The American Medical Association (AMA) and doctors’ groups at the state level have been urging state legislators and licensing authorities to move cautiously, arguing that patient care could be compromised.
The AMA issued a report in which it questioned whether nurse practitioners are sufficiently qualified to render medical care in areas currently restricted to physicians.
“To back up its claims, the report cites recent studies that question the prescription methods of some nurse practitioners, as well as a survey that reported only 10 percent of nurse practitioners questioned felt well prepared to practice primary care.”
The idea that nurse practitioners are qualified to serve as substitutes for physicians it truly worrisome. There is a reason why nurse practitioners are not physicians – they don’t have the same level of training and expertise. Surely, there are patients with fairly simple medical complaints, which probably could be addressed by nurse practitioners; however, what about the inevitable complex patient? Are nurse practitioners sufficiently trained to simultaneously recognize the interplay of multiple medical conditions, as well as determine the interplay of necessary medications, radiographic studies and necessary follow up care? I for one will make sure to be seen by a physician.
Contributing author: Jon Stefanuca