Archive for the ‘Infectious Diseases’ Category

West Nile Virus is Back in D.C. -Things You Should Do to Stop the Spread

Wednesday, October 12th, 2011

Last week, the D.C. Department of Health confirmed this year’s first case of West Nile Virus (WNV). WNV is a bird disease. However, infected mosquitoes can transmit the virus to humans. Otherwise, this disease cannot be transmitted directly from a human or a bird.  Persons infected with the West Nile Virus may experience severe headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, muscle aches, pain, and stiffness.

While the risk of a WNV infection is low, individuals who are immunocompromised should be particularly careful and seek medical attention if symptoms are present. Individuals with weak or suppressed immune systems include the elderly, young children and those prone to infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS patients).  The key is to implement measures to reduce exposure to mosquitoes. Individuals at risk should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants. Mosquito repellent should be used as well.

Every year, the Department of Health conducts WNV testing throughout the District, particularly in areas where infections have been reported. If you live in an affected area, you might receive additional information from the Department. Larvicide may be sprayed in your neighborhood. Should you require additional information about WNV, feel free to contact the D.C. Department of Health.

In the meantime, while mosquitoes are still flying around, here are a few things you could do stop the spread of the WNV:

1.  Dispose of cans, bottles and open containers properly.  Store items for recycling in covered containers.
2.  Remove discarded tires. Drill drainage holes in tires used on playground equipment.
3. Clean roof gutters and downspouts regularly.  Eliminate standing water from flat roofs.
4. Turn over plastic wading pools, wheelbarrows, and canoes when not in use.
5. Cover waste containers with tight-fitting lids; never allow lids or cans to accumulate water.
6. Flush bird baths and potted plant trays twice each week.
7. Adjust tarps over grills, firewood piles, boats or swimming pools to eliminate small pockets of water from standing   several days.
8. Re-grade low areas where water stands; clean debris in ditches to eliminate standing water in low spots.
9. Maintain swimming pools, clean and chlorinate them as needed, aerate garden ponds and treat with “mosquito dunks” found at hardware stores.
10. Fix dripping water faucets outside and eliminate puddles from air conditioners.
11. Store pet food and water bowls inside when not in use.

Please share this information with your friends and neighbors.

Week in Review: (July 2 – July 9, 2011) Eye Opener Health, Law and Medicine Blog

Saturday, July 9th, 2011

Eye Opener’s Week in Review

From the guest editor:         Good morning! I was hoping that you would take a break from making your “to do” list to stop by and check in with us. As usual, we have been busy blogging. And practicing law. And getting ready for trial. And in trial! Needless to say, we have been pushing it to the limits. In truth, we wouldn’t have it any other way. Before we get back to trial preparation, lets take a step back and look at the past week.

–Jason Penn, guest editor

Litigating for the Sake of Litigating: A Temptation to Be Resisted

By Jon Stefanuca

What do you do when your opposing counsel forgets that the practice of law is a profession and not a blood sport? What do you do when the phase “zealous representation” gets confused with “obnoxious obstructionist behavior?” When faced with similar frustrations, Jon Stefanuca broke out his keyboard and explained what we litigators deal with on a day to day basis. Being a lawyer is a very rewarding profession, but like any other, it has its share of frustrations. Don’t take my word for it, read more…

Can Copper Surfaces and Duct Tape Reduce Hospital Infections and Deaths?

By Sara Keogh

Germs are in your kitchen.  They are in your bathroom and your bedroom.  They are on your fingertips and even on your tongue.  And everyone knows that there are going to be germs in hospitals. Even the best hospitals have to work to keep the patients, rooms and visitors clean and safe.  Sara Keogh reported on news that may make keeping hospitals and other health care environments less germy in the future. Two simple solutions, copper and duct tape, might have a major impact on infection control.  Read more…

Sneak Peak of the Week Ahead:

The Eye Opener and its writers are excited about the week ahead too!  Here’s a sneak peak of what’s in store for you:

  • Service dogs for children:  more than just a pet
  • Legal Boot Camp is back in session and Part IV of our Cerebral Palsy tutorial.
  • And more!

Images courtesy of:

www.lifehack.org

www.mountainpulse.blogspot.org

 

Can Copper Surfaces and Duct Tape Reduce Hospital Infections and Deaths?

Thursday, July 7th, 2011

Image from medgadget.com

How many times have you heard about someone entering the hospital healthy, or relatively so, and developing a dangerous infection while hospitalized? What about the number of times that you may have visited your own doctor’s office or your child’s pediatrician’s office and wondered whether the cold you got a few days later was coincidence or the result of having been in the waiting and exam rooms following other sick patients? Have you ever considered what cleaning procedures are done in hospital rooms when one patient is discharged before another takes their place?

In the past, Brian Nash and the other legal bloggers here at Eye Opener have written posts and made mention of the importance of hospital cleanliness and sterility, see the related posts below. We have been involved in cases involving the devastating results of infections. However, everyone knows that there are going to be germs in hospitals. Even the best hospitals have to work to keep the patients, rooms and visitors clean and safe.

Well, there is news that may make keeping hospitals and other health care environments less germy in the future. Two recent articles have focused on seemingly simple solutions, copper and duct tape, that may have major impacts on infection control.

Copper Surfaces Dramatically Reduce Infections by Killing Bacteria

A Reuters’ article reports that a recent study “presented at the World Health Organization’s 1st International Conference on Prevention and Infection Control (ICPIC) in Geneva, Switzerland” shows that “replacing the most heavily contaminated touch surfaces in ICUs with antimicrobial copper will control bacteria growth and cut down on infection rates.” According to the Reuters’ article:

[a]ntimicrobial copper surfaces in intensive care units (ICU) kill 97 percent of bacteria that can cause hospital-acquired infections, according to preliminary results of a multisite clinical trial in the United States. The results also showed a 40 percent reduction in the risk of acquiring an infection.

This news could have a profound impact on health-care costs, disease spread, and most importantly lives lost. If hospitals are able to replace some of their current surfaces with copper surfaces, at least in the parts of the hospital that are most frequently the source of infections, there could be a dramatic improvement in hospital-acquired infections.

Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are the fourth leading cause of death in the United States behind heart disease, strokes and cancer.

According to estimates provided by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, nearly one in every 20 hospitalized U.S. patients acquires an HAI, resulting in 100,000 lives lost each year.

From Reuters

Perhaps even more infections could be prevented if these changes could be made outside of just ICUs. For instance, perhaps copper surfaces could replace highly touched surfaces on sink handles, the doors to hospital rooms, hospital bed rails, or in out-patient surgery centers and long-term care facilities that are not housed within hospitals.

Duct Tape Warnings Keep Others Far Enough Away from Infected Patients

Image from ducttapesales.com

An article from Medicalnewstoday reports that some hospitals are using plain duct tape – just colored red – to achieve a reduction in infection rates from highly infectious patients without having to deal with the hassle and expense of all visitors or hospital personnel who enter the room having to rescrub and use new gowns every time they enter the room of an infected patient. The study looked at highly infectious diseases like C. diff that require isolation of patients and very careful hand washing to avoid spreading the infection. So how does duct tape help?

The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) commissioned a study to corner off a three foot perimeter around the bed of patients in isolation. Medical personnel could enter the room unprotected if they stayed outside the perimeter. Direct patient contact or presence inside the perimeter meant a redo of the cleansing process. The concept, called “Red Box” employs red duct tape, a color used as it provides a strong visual reminder to those who enter the room to be aware.

The study found that 33% of all who entered the rooms could do so without the addition of gowns and gloves, saving the environment, hospital and patient costs, and time without compromising the patient or the medical personnel.

From Medicalnewstoday

How Else Can We Reduce Infections?

What ideas do you have for the use of copper surfaces? Do you think that copper surfaces or duct tape could make a dramatic difference in the safety of hospital admission? What about the cost? Do you think that hospitals would pay the upfront costs of replacing surfaces with copper to be able to dramatically cut infection rates? What about other low cost solutions like duct-tape around the perimeter of the bed? Can you think of other low-cost solutions that could minimize infections and maximize safety?

Related Posts:

New federal study finds ‘lax infection control’ at same-day surgery centers

FDA warning to healthcare professionals: use sterile prep pads!

Diseases of Summer: Ticks and Lyme Disease

Thursday, June 30th, 2011

family-time2

Summer is heating up, and there are lots of outdoor activities in which to participate. Along with the thermostat, however, there is also a rise in the deer tick population! This equates to an increase in Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in America! Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Delaware and New Jersey all all “hotbeds” for this disease, comprising 5 of the top  12 states comprising 95% of all Lyme disease cases nationwide.

According to a recent post by Roberta Seldon in Boomer Health and Lifestyle, the deer tick population is a “bumper crop” this year, partly due to the wet winter in the Midatlantic and Northeast United States. Tick activity peaks in June and July, and this correlates to rates of illness as reported by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The CDC also reported 2009 as the second-highest incidence of disease cases, following 2007; with the estimated increase in the deer tick population, 2011 might go down in the record books as the highest year ever since the beginning of recording/reporting lyme disease (1995). The Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH) breaks down the jurisdictions even further into cases per County, with the top two counties being Baltimore and Anne Arundel, with Howard, Harford and Carroll counties being right in the mix.

What is a deer tick and what does it look like?

The deer tick, as it is commonly called, is really the black-legged tick or Ixodes scapularis. This is NOT the same as the dog tick; it is a much-smaller version with different coloration. The Canadian Lyme Disease site provides an excellent pictoral description and differentiation of the various types of ticks and relative sizes. The deer tick, especially in the nymph stage, is so very tiny and nearly impossible to see, and it is this very pinpoint little bug that causes most of the infections.

The CDC website (one of my favorites for all kinds of information related to infectious diseases and other public health topics) details the disease transmission process and prevention, diagnosis and treatment information. The site discusses many myths about the tick, its removal, the disease, its symptoms and long-term sequellae.

Did you know that the tick itself does not cause the disease? The tick carries a bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi that has to be transmitted through the saliva during feeding. It takes at least 24 hours, if not 36 to 48  hours, of tick attachment and feeding in order to transmit the bacteria. Thus, besides various prevention techniques with appropriate clothing and wearing bug spray with DEET, it is critical to perform (or have someone else perform) a “tick-check” after being in wooded areas or areas known to have deer activity. The best way to remove this little critter is by using tweezers and grasping the head while applying gentle traction in the opposite direction of attachment. Even if you are not the environmental type but you have a dog, be sure to apply tick-prevention remedies to your pet since they can bring these critters into your home.

What are some common symptoms of Lyme disease?

The most common symptom, and the one classically associated with Lyme disease, is the bulls-eye type rash (called erythema migrans) that develops at the site of the infection/tick bite.

There is a central area of redness, and over several days, the red ring starts to migrate peripherally, followed by an area of clearing; it clearly resembles a bulls-eye target. According to the CDC, approximately 68% of those infected report this rash. The next most common symptom is joint pain that can involve one or more joints and typically migrates to various joints. Other more serious presentations include paralysis of the facial nerve (Bell’s palsy), meningitis or encephalitis, and even heart block or problems with the electrical conduction system of the heart leading to irregular heart rhythms.

The Maryland DHMH just released a video on Lyme Disease in Maryland. Dr. Katherine Feldman describes the disease.  It is a 7-minute and 23-second video with lots of good information. Please, click the link to watch and learn!

Other tick-borne illnesses:

Lyme disease is not the only disease transmitted by ticks. Ticks live on the blood of the hosts on which they feed. They can transmit a variety of pathogens via their bite and/or saliva that have been acquired from other hosts. Some of these infections include anaplasmosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF). As an aside, don’t let the Rocky Mountain part fool you! North Carolina has one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF nationwide!

QUESTION: Do you know someone who has had Lyme Disease? Were there any unusual circumstances surrounding the diagnosis? Share your story so others can be more aware!

Images courtesy of:

(c) L. Gerlach on Blisstree.com